PROM Detail

The Empowerment Scale
  • Basic Information
  • Detailed Information
  • Domains
  • Psychometrics

Basic Information

Abbreviated name
Full name
The Empowerment Scale
Items ?
The number of questions in the survey
Short description
The Empowerment Scale (ES) is a new self-report measure of patient positive attitude and sense of control, knowledge and confidence in decision-making, and enabling others in self-management for long-term conditions in primary care. The ES has demonstrated good reliability and validity (Small et al, 2013). The enabling others dimension is a novel dimension in need of further exploration. It relates to current self-management initiatives in the NHS, such as the Expert Patients Programme, and the Health Trainers initiative, which both rely on non-professionals to teach and empower patients who may be coping less well with their long-term conditions. The ES has similarities with the Patient Activation Measure (Hibbard et al, 2005) and a formal comparison might highlight advantages and disadvantages of each. Both measures have different psychometric properties and underlying scale structure. The ES is currently being validated and back translated in 9 countries, the first results and back translation of the ES will be available in French (Quebec) in 2017.
PCCC or QoL? ?
This compendium contains patient-reported measures that are either designed to specifically measure aspects of Person Centred Co-Ordinated Care (P3C), or alternatively tools that are designed to measure some aspect of Quality of Life (QoL) or Health Related Quality of Life (hrQoL). All the measures in this compendium have been broadly categorised into one of those two concepts.
Person Centred Coordinated Care
Main Domains Measured ?
This is the key domains that the measure is targeting.
Empowerment, positive attitude, sense of control, knowledge, confidence in decision-making, and enabling in self-management
Type of measure ?
The measures in this compendium can take a variety of forms. Generally, they will be either Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM) or Patient Reported Experience Measure (PREM). However, we have also included a few measures that are completed by proxy-individual (PROXY), which are useful in instances where the respondent cannot answer directly (e.g. dementia or end of life). Sometimes, these measures can even be a composite of these types, and target both experiences and outcomes – we have labelled these measures “PROEMs”.
Respondent ?
The person that fills in the questionnaire - e.g. patient, Health Care Professional, or proxy (normally a carer or family member)
Permissive licence ?
Whether the measure is free to use without major restrictions, or instead permission and/or licensing fees are required. E.g. if "Yes", you should seek authorisation/permission prior to using the instrument.
Freely available

Detailed Information

Year developed ?
The year in which the measure was first published.
Country developed in ?
The main country[s] in which the measure was first developed.
Original publication ?
The publication in which the measure was originally published.
Search Citations of Original Reference
Website link ?
A link to the developer of the measure, if they have a website.
Target condition ?
The measures can be either generic or disease specific (e.g. Diabetes, Heart Failure)
Generic Long term conditions
Main context tested in ?
The main context in which the measure has been developed and used (E.g. Hopital, General Practice etc).
Primary Care
Main countries used in ?
The main countries in which the measure has been developed and used.
United Kingdom, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, United States, Canada, Belgium, Sweden, Denmark, China
Target age ?
e.g. Adults, Children, Elderly
Adults, older people
Main uses of measure ?
The context in which the measure is most often used – e.g. clinical trials; national surveys.
Designed to assist in exploring the impact of empowerment in primary care and allow measurement of the effects of interventions which aim to increase empowerment in patients with long-term conditions (LTCs).
Used in UK? ?
Whether the instrument has been tested and validated within a UK healthcare context.
Impact ?
A crude indication of the impact of the measure on academia. This is the number of times the original publication has been cited on PubMed, divided/normalised to the years since publication.
Official translations
French (Quebec)
Other versions available
47-item version


Domain description
Empowerment, positive attitude, sense of control, knowledge, confidence in decision-making, and enabling in self-management


Brief description ?
A brief description of the initially reported psychometric properties of the measure.
The empowerment measure meets basic psychometric criteria in terms of reliability and validity. The alpha of the total empowerment scale was 0.82 and the scale may be considered internally consistent by current conventions e.g. >0.7. A total empowerment score across all items showed acceptable levels of internal consistency and relationships with other measures were generally supportive of its construct validity.
Co-developed with patients ?
Whether the measure was co-developed with patients, a critical stage in the design and implementation of truly person-centred measures.
CTT or IRT ?
Whether the measure uses Classical Test Theory, or the newer Item Response Theory