PROM Detail

Patient Activation Measure (22 item)
  • Basic Information
  • Detailed Information
  • Domains
  • Psychometrics

Basic Information

Abbreviated name
Full name
Patient Activation Measure (22 item)
Items ?
The number of questions in the survey
Short description
The PAM is a tool that measures how engaged a patient is in their healthcare by assessing their knowledge, skill and confidence for self-management. Unlike other measures of engagement, the PAM not only captures the patients beliefs about their ability to self-manage, but also the likelihood that they will act on these beliefs. The PAM has been used in several different countries, including the UK. There are long (22 item) and short (13 item) versions available. To various degrees, the PAM has been applied in three main ways: as a means of intervening to improve individuals engagement and outcomes; to segment populations, and carry out risk stratification, so that interventions can be targeted to at risk groups and lastly, to measure the performance of health care systems and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to involve patients care.
PCCC or QoL? ?
This compendium contains patient-reported measures that are either designed to specifically measure aspects of Person Centred Co-Ordinated Care (P3C), or alternatively tools that are designed to measure some aspect of Quality of Life (QoL) or Health Related Quality of Life (hrQoL). All the measures in this compendium have been broadly categorised into one of those two concepts.
Person Centred Coordinated Care
Main Domains Measured ?
This is the key domains that the measure is targeting.
Patient activation, engagement and empowerment
Type of measure ?
The measures in this compendium can take a variety of forms. Generally, they will be either Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM) or Patient Reported Experience Measure (PREM). However, we have also included a few measures that are completed by proxy-individual (PROXY), which are useful in instances where the respondent cannot answer directly (e.g. dementia or end of life). Sometimes, these measures can even be a composite of these types, and target both experiences and outcomes – we have labelled these measures “PROEMs”.
Respondent ?
The person that fills in the questionnaire - e.g. patient, Health Care Professional, or proxy (normally a carer or family member)
Permissive licence ?
Whether the measure is free to use without major restrictions, or instead permission and/or licensing fees are required. E.g. if "Yes", you should seek authorisation/permission prior to using the instrument.

Detailed Information

Year developed ?
The year in which the measure was first published.
Country developed in ?
The main country[s] in which the measure was first developed.
Original publication ?
The publication in which the measure was originally published.
Search Citations of Original Reference
Website link ?
A link to the developer of the measure, if they have a website. and
Target condition ?
The measures can be either generic or disease specific (e.g. Diabetes, Heart Failure)
Main context tested in ?
The main context in which the measure has been developed and used (E.g. Hopital, General Practice etc).
Primary Care, Hospitals
Main countries used in ?
The main countries in which the measure has been developed and used.
Numerous, including the UK
Target age ?
e.g. Adults, Children, Elderly
Main uses of measure ?
The context in which the measure is most often used – e.g. clinical trials; national surveys.
(1) As an intervention, (2) to conduct population segmentation and risk stratification to target interventions, (3) to measure the performance of health care systems and (4) to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to involve patients.
Used in UK? ?
Whether the instrument has been tested and validated within a UK healthcare context.
Impact ?
A crude indication of the impact of the measure on academia. This is the number of times the original publication has been cited on PubMed, divided/normalised to the years since publication.
Other versions available
Long (22 items) , short (13 items), modified versions for specific conditions and translated versions.


Domain description
Patient activation, engagement and empowerment


Brief description ?
A brief description of the initially reported psychometric properties of the measure.
All of the infit and outfit statistics for the 13-item version of the PAM fall well within the 0.5
Co-developed with patients ?
Whether the measure was co-developed with patients, a critical stage in the design and implementation of truly person-centred measures.
Search link ?
A structured Pubmed search for publications on this measure that discuss psychometric properties.
Patient Activation Measure'
CTT or IRT ?
Whether the measure uses Classical Test Theory, or the newer Item Response Theory